(a) Free trade ignores differences in productivity between countries (b) Free trade can lead to unemployment c) Free trade often ignores the effects of monopolies on consumer well-being (d) Free trade can only work within trading blocs (e) free trade reduces international specialization The World Trade Organization helps facilitate these trade by providing a framework for the negotiation of different trade agreements. It also offers a settlement of disputes that may arise between trade nations covered by WTO agreements. In the run-up to the 1986 GATT Ministerial Conference in Punta del Este, Uruguay, agricultural lobbies in industrialized countries have vehemently opposed agricultural trade-offs. In this context, the idea of excluding “trade-neutral” production and subsidies from WTO commitments was first proposed in 1987 by the United States and soon replicated by the EU.  By guaranteeing continued support to farmers, it has also neutralized the opposition. In exchange for the integration of agriculture into WTO disciplines and the obligation to reduce trade-distorting subsidies in the future, developed countries could maintain subsidies that result in “no more than minimal trade distortion” in order to achieve different public policy objectives.  Explanation: GATT members signed an agreement during the Uruguay Round of April 1994 and the WTO was established on 1 January 1995. Export subsidies are the third pillar. The 1995 agricultural agreement required industrialized countries to reduce export subsidies by at least 36% (in value terms) or by 21% (by volume) over a six-year value. For developing countries, the agreement called for reductions of 24% (in value) and 14% (in volume) over ten years. Which state negotiated and signed an association agreement with the EU, but decided not to sign it at the end of 2013? The EU`s accession to the EU, which prompted an agreement on the Lomé Convention? (d) The WTO has been able to cover the direct tax policies of Member States in its agreements. The first pillar of the agricultural agreement is “domestic support.” AoA divides domestic support into two categories: distorting trade and not distorting trade (or having a low level of trade distortion).
The WTO agricultural agreement negotiated in the Uruguay Round (1986-1994) provides for the classification of subsidies by “boxes” according to the consequences of production and trade: bernstein (most directly related to the level of production), blue (production limitation programmes that still distort trade) and green (minimum distortion).  While payments in the amber box were to be reduced, those in the green box were released from the discount obligations. Detailed rules for green box payments are contained in Schedule 2 of the AOA. However, all must meet the basic requirement of paragraph 1 in order not to create more than a minimal distortion of trade or production, and they must be provided by a state-funded programme, which does not involve consumer transfer or price support to producers.  The agreement has been criticized by civil society groups for reducing customs protection for small farmers, an important source of income in developing countries, while allowing rich countries to continue subsidizing agriculture in their own countries. Question 4: The Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights is managed by: a) To settle disputes between nations (b) To extend the principle of free trade to sectors such as services and agriculture (c) To cover more territories than GATT (d) Until the 1980s, public payments to agricultural producers in industrialized countries generated high crop surpluses. which have been unloaded by export subsidies on the world market, which has lowered food prices. Tax pressure on safeguards has increased, due to both lower import duty revenues and increased domestic spending. Meanwhile, the global economy has entered a cycle of recession and the perception that the opening of the markets